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516
THE IRON INDUSTRY.
ported at Cardiff in 1899 contained only 50 per cent, of iron and from 7 to 14 per cent, of silica, but they were smelted with one ton of coke per ton of iron. Some of the older iron works are in the interior, a legacy from ancient times, but new plants are on tidewater, thus reducing the freight on both raw material and finished product.
The northern shore of the Bristol Channel produced almost exactly the same quantity of steel in 1903 as Scotland. Unlike Scotland,, half of the output is Bessemer; but like Scotland, it is all acid, both Bessemer and open-hearth. This district in 1903 raised 18 per cent, of all the coal mined in the island and furnished 44 per cent, of all the coal exported from the Kingdom,
TABLE XXIII-M.
Iron and Steel Plants in Glamorganshire, Monmouthshire and ' Gloucestershire.
Name of "Works.	Location.	Blast Furnaces.	Bessemer Converters.		Open Hearth Furnaces.	
			Acid.	Basic.	Acid.	Basic.
	Blaenavon ..... Merthyr Tydfll Ebbw Vale  Dowlais .......	9 9 6 i  f	2 2		2	
						
CrawshayBros. (Cyfarthfa) Ebbw Vale S. and I. Co ..... G-uest Keen & Co., for- 1 merly Dowlais Iron Co. j Nettlefolds ..................						
					2 8 6	
						
	Cardiff .........					
	Newport .....					
Tredegar ..... ........... ....	Tredegar .......	5				
Elba & Panteg ..............	Swansea .......				8 5 6 5 5 37	
Swansea Hem. I. & S. Wks. Briton Ferry ................	Landore .....	2 2				
	Briton Ferry . .					
Pontardawe Steel "Works. .						
Upper Forest ...............	Morriston .....					
Other open hearth plants. .						
Rhymney Iron Co ..........		9 8				
Other blast furnace plants. Total .....................						
						
		69			84	
						
and 14 per cent, of all the export coke. It made about 10 per cent, of all the pig-iron and 21 per cent, of all the steel. The make of puddled iron is small. This arises from the fact that there are no cheap.native ores and it does not pay to put iron from Spanish ores into puddled bar.
Fig. XXIII-F shows a ground plan of the new open-hearth plant and plate mill of the Dowlais Iron Company at Cardiff, this being one of the best arranged plants in Great Britain. Table XXIII-M